Dr. Kain is recognized as an international expert in the clinical management of perioperative fear and anxiety, and management of children undergoing invasive medical procedures. His research addresses major dilemmas encountered in the management of affected children. To date, Dr. Kain has revolutionized the care of children in preoperative settings both in the United States and around the globe. In fact, Dr. Kain's research triggered a change in the manner in which children are treated during invasive medical procedures and during the perioperative period. As a direct result of Dr. Kain's research, significantly fewer children in the US and around the globe are taken into the operating rooms and sedation suites, awake, alone and screaming and crying. Dr. Kain achieved this by demonstrating that extreme anxiety and fear in children undergoing surgery and invasive procedures is associated with poor clinical and psychological outcomes of these children and thus should not be allowed. By promoting the conceptual importance of this field and continuing to develop associated empirical findings, Dr. Kain intends to markedly improve the quality of evidence available to anesthesiologists, pediatricians and surgeons making clinical decisions regarding management of children's distress and pain during the perioperative period.